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1:1-2 Salutation - Elect/Aliens
1:1-2 Salutation - Elect/AliensDetailed Outline1 AuthorPeter
of Jesus Christ2 Recipients: To the...Who they are:Gentiles addressed as Jews
Christians are the people of God
"He regards the church as the true Israel...Israel's place has been taken by the church, who are 'a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation'...[this] is further supported by the fact that Peter applies to the church words that in their Old Testament context refers to the future conversion of literal Israel [Hosea 1:10]"" - Ladd, New Testament Theology p. 599-600RelationshipsTo God: ElectNot to position, but to commission"The people of Israel were warned against supposing that they were God's favorites, for there was no partiality in Israel's God. If their privileges as God's chosen people were so great, their responsibilities were proportionally great; wickedness in Israel was dealt with more severely than wickedness in other nations, because Israel had better opportunities of knowing what was right...Since He selected Israel for Himself, Israel must be a holy people: 'You shall be holy, for I, Yahweh your God, am holy'" Bruce, NT developments of OT Themes p. 59-60
Relationship and responsibility - Jn 15:16Not the basis for pride - Deut. 7:6-8, I Cor. 1:26-29
Election involves purpose Eph 1:4-5, Rom. 8:29-30
Goal of election is God's glory - Eph. 1:6-12To the world: StrangersSomeone not at home, not comfortable, not having a sense of total identification or belonging - Phil. 3:20, 1 Jn 2:15
"The greater part of 1 Peter helps the reader to understand how Christians ought to live in a world which does not provide congenial soil for the cultivation of Christian graces." Bruce, Message of the New Testament p. 91
"Christians are in a foreign land, in which they live as exiles...living in the world and yet not of the world; hated by the world and yet seeking to overcome it...'The Christians dwell in their own countries, but only as sojourners. As citizens they share all things with others, and yet endure all things as if foreigners. Every foreign land is to them as a native country, and every land of their birth as a land of strangers.' In other words the Christian life is one of pilgrimage to another and better country." Tasker, The OT in the NT pp. 132-3PlaceIn the dispersionscattered away from a homelandin Pontus, Glatia, Capadocia, Asia, and BithyniaWhy they are:Reason: according to the foreknowledge of God the Father-cf. Rom. 8:29-30, Eph. 1:4, Deut. 7:6-8Means: by the sanctifying work of the Spirit-cf. 2 Thes. 2:13Purpose: into obedience and sprinkling of the blood of ChristSignifying consecration into new community and covenant and relationship to God
-cf. Exo. 24:3-83 GreetingGrace
be multiplied to you
1:3-12 The hope of Salvation
1:3-9 The hope of the New BirthDetailed Outline3-5 God has done great things3a Blessed is the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ3b-5 Reason Why:3b-4 He has changed our lives - He has given us new birth3b Reason: He did this because of His great mercy3c-4 Results:We live in hopeinto a living hopeactive hope
because of the partial realization of a future blessingthrough the resurrection of Jesus Christ from the deadmeans - our hope is guaranteed by the resurrectionWe have an inheritancePermanent: into an inheritance which is incorruptible, undefiled, and unfadingimperishable/immortal pure/undefiled/undefilable unfading/pristineSafe: kept/preserved in heaven for you5 He has made us secure - you who are kept (guarded)[kept] by the power of God
[kept] through faith
[kept] for the salvationready to be revealed
revealed in the last day6-9 Our response to what God has done6-7 You rejoice in suffering and will rejoice at the last day6a You rejoice in thisYou rejoice in thisEither a statement: "You are rejoicing in this"
Or a command: "Rejoice in this"in thispossibly - "in this time" referring to the "last day" in v. 5
less possibly - "in Him" referring to "God" in v. 3
least possible - "in these" referring to "trials" in v. 66b-7 Even though we may have to suffer now6b-c Suffering is a great possibility6b If it is necessaryPossibly - "since it is necessary"6c Now, for a little while, suffering in manifold trialsTime of trials:NowType of trials
For a little whileSuffering - becoming sorrowful
Trials - temptations
Manifold - of various kinds7 This suffering is for a purposeSo that your faith may be rewardedSo that the tested genuineness of your faithYour faith is testedWhich is more precious than goldWhich is being destroyedGold is liable to be destroyed
It will not last forever
Contrast with our hope and inheritance (v. 4) which will last foreverEven though it is tested by fireGold is tried by fire to burn out impurities - to make it pure and demonstrate its purity
Likewise, your faith is tried by suffering, both to purify it and to demonstrate its purity
Even the most pure gold is still destroyed - even the weakest genuine faith will be proved trueYour faith may be found into praise, glory and honorOur faith (and faithfulness) will ultimately bring praise and honor to Christ
However, in this passage, Peter is referring to the reward that we will receive from Christ for faithfully enduring trials
God's vindication and rewarding of His suffering people is a Major theme in 1 PeterWhen Jesus is revealed8-9 You rejoice in expectation and will rejoice in fulfillment8a-b You love without sight8a Even though you have not seen Him [in the past or present]8b You love Him8c-9 You rejoice in faith and will rejoice in fulfillment8c-e You will rejoice8c-d The means by which you will rejoice8c Even though you don't see Him now8d You believe in Him8e The result is that you will rejoice in that timeYou are rejoicing with inexpressible and glorious joywith unspeakable joy
with glorious joy9 The reason:You are receiving [and will receive] the end goal of your faith
[that is] the salvation of [your] souls
1:10-12 The Greatness of This SalvationDetailed Outline10-12c Christian salvation was of great interest to the prophets10-11 The prophets searched into its meaning and implication10 The prophets took a great interest in the things concerning this salvation10a The prophets who prophesied concerning the grace that was to be yours, they searched out10b And they inquired carefully concerning this salvationBoth terms
inquired carefullyhave the implication of exerting a lot of effort to learn something11 Specifically: they investigated to find out exactly what the prophets meant when they predicted the sufferings and resulting glories of Christ11a They investigated into what time and what kind of timeThe time and circumstances
-cf. Matt. 24:311b-c The Spirit was telling them beforehand about the sufferings and the resulting glories of Christ11b The Spirit of Christ in them was making known-cf. 2 Pet 1:19-2111c By bearing witness beforehand about the sufferings that happened to Christ and the glories that came after themThe sufferings of Christ - cf. Luke 24:25-6
The glories that come after
This is a key connection that Peter will reference throughout the rest of the epistle
Notice how many times in Peter, whenever he mentions the sufferings which his readers are experiencing, he immediately points to their future experience of glory as God's certain vindication of them and the recompense for their suffering
Peter is reminding his readers of Jesus' experience as a promise: when they follow in the footsteps of His suffering, they will likewise have a similar experience to His vindication and glory
The readers follow the pattern of Christ through suffering to glory12a-d They found out it was not for them, but for our time12a-c It was revealed to them that they were serving a future age12a It was revealed to them12b-c That they were not serving themselves, but you12b It was not to themselves12c But they were serving these things to you12d These things have now been proclaimed to you through those who preached you the Gospel by the Holy Spirit, sent from Heaven12e Christian salvation is of interest to angels - they long to gain a clear glance into these thingsInto which thingsAngels desire to try to learn/gain a clear glanceLiterally - "stoop to look"
1:13-2:10 Right living in hope
1:13-16 Holy living in hope
Detailed Outline13 Have Christian ThinkingTherefore...points back to the preceding
- Sentence Flow
- Greek Sentence Flow
- Mini Word Studies
- Grammar Studies
- Teaching Outline
"With the connective particle dio of v. 13, Peter shifts from reflection on the gospel his readers have received and the eschatological hope this gospel has given them, to the ethical responsibilities they now have as a result." WBC p. 5213a Gird up the loins of your mind-cf. Exo. 12:11, Luke 12:35
Prepare your mind for action (roll up your sleeves)
To prepare yourself for learning and thinking,
To get your mind ready for action, to be alert and ready to think
Meditation and introspection, personal examination
Thinking through the faith and its implications
"Peter has in view not the natural human intellect but a capacity that is theirs by virtue of their redemption in Jesus Christ (contrast the agnoia of their former way of life in v. 14" WBC p. 5413b Be sober-cf. 4:7
Be well balanced in judgment, self-controlled, free from every form of mental and spiritual drunkenness,
i.e. rashness, excess, passion, confusion, etc., to be in control of ones thought processes, restraint and moderation.
Do not be carried away by fads13c Hope completely in the grace to be given to youGod's unmerited favor, signifying the whole benefits of heaven spoken of already
Hope, like faith, depends on its objectthe grace being brought to youThe word "brought" means "carry, bring" and speaks of God's work in bringing it about, not our work in seeking it out
"The use of ferein instead of ercesthai underscores the sovereign action of God in bringing grace to his people" WBC p. 56the grace being brought at the revelation of ChristOnce again Peter points to the future rewards of the Christian as a basis for present attitude and action14-16 Have Christian Action14a As obedient childrenAct according to the way obedient children would and should - comparison14b-16 Act in this way-cf. 1 Thes. 4:3-814b Neg: Do not be conformed to your desiresNot being conformed toTo form or mold one's behavior in accordance with a particular set of standards
To shape ones behavior, to conform to, to be guided by... cf. Rom. 12:2to your desires-cf. Eph. 2:3, 4:17-19
lusts, strong desires, inordinate desires
"It is possible that Peter is using the word [desires] as a neutral term (in the sense of 'impulses' rather than 'evil desires' or 'lusts')...In any case, [desires] does not refer exclusively to 'lust' in the sense of sexual desire, but more generally to all kinds of self-seeking, whether directed toward wealth, power, or pleasure" WBC p. 57
To conform to our self-centered desires was natural to do, but no more, we now have a new standard which should drive our desires and pursuitsto your former desiresPeter is not denying that we still have desires
He is denying that they are still the standard by which we live
Sometimes we deny our natural desires because they clash with our new standard of living
Our old, selfish desires are replaced with new, godly desires and standards
"As obedient children", "be holy because I am holy"in your ignoranceThese desires are characterized by ignorance
There are two types of ignorance:The ignorance of innocence - not yet knowing because we have not yet had the experienceWe are no longer in ignorance - cf. vv. 10-12
And the ignorance of deception - purposely keeping ourselves in the dark
We know the truth and we know Christ
"agnoia is not primarily an intellectual but a moral and relifious defect, nothing less than rebellion against God" WBC p. 5815-16 Pos: Be Holy15 Be holyLike the Holy One Who called you"This clause is usually translated 'as he who called you is holy' (RSV; cf. NIV, TEV; cf. the expression 'he who called you' in 2:9 and 5:10)...kata [like], however, is a preposition ('like' or 'in accordance with'), not a conjunction ('as' or 'just as');" WBC p. 5a
This goes to show that the emphasis is God as our standard, that we live up to the example of His person and character as our aim and goalHoly oneGod is completely holy and perfect in all He is and does
Holiness basically means separate or different - in a class by Himself
It is the sum total of all that God is in contrast to His creatures
It also means superior (perfect) moral qualities
Not that God lives up to a standard outside Himself, but He is the standard by which all is measured
God is holy, perfect in morality
Therefore, holiness is measured in conformity to His person, character and will.Who called youWe have a calling, to relationship and responsibility
We are called to be holy because that is the trait of the one who called us -
We are called from our past desires and called to God's will
"the function of the modifier kalesanta [who called] is to indicate why the holiness of the God of Israel must be a model for the behavior of these Gentile Christians. Their identity rests in the fact that they have been 'called' (2:21; 3:9) by a holy God. Consequently they belong to 'him who called you out of darkness into his marvelous light' (2:9; cf. 5:10). They are Gentiles invited to stand before the God of Israel with the same privileges as the Jews and, more to the point in our passage, with the same responsibilities: 'be holy because I am holy.'" WBC p. 59You also Be holy in all your conductYou alsoIn the same way that God is - "like the Holy One Who called you"Be holyTo be holy means to be set apart, separate, different, to be separated from the profane things of the world or the past and consecrated to GodIn all your conductThis means in your daily conduct, your way of life, your behavior in all aspects of your life
The Bible does not teach us to run away to a monastery to be hermits separated from the world in all aspects, but to bring our consecration into every walk of life, to be in the world, but not of it, to be salt and light, cf. Jn. 17:14-18, Matt. 5:13-16
Holiness does not take us out of life (except those sinful aspects)
It invades all areas of our life making them fruitful for God16 The Reason - Scripture says so16a Because it is written -16b-c What is written:quoting Lev. 11:44-45; 19:2; 20:716b Be holy16c The Reason: because I am holyNotice above that God's holiness is our standard for holiness.
Here it is also our reason for holiness
-cf. Lev. 11:45SummaryChrist is not asking us to think more or think less, to feel more or feel less;
He is telling us to think and feel in the right way
Not according to our lusts or fancies, but with a clear mind,
According to His standard or His life and Word and according to the hope that we have
To think and live in a Christlike manner is our standard and goal
the character and holiness of our God is both our motivation and guide
1:17-21 Honorable living as aliens in hopeDetailed OutlineContinuing a series of commands in vv. 13-16
All based on "therefore" relating back to vv. 3-1217 Live your life as one who will be held responsible for one's own actions17a Since you call on a Father Who impartially judges each according to his works"The emphasis of this clause is less on the fact that the reader addresses God as Father than on the fact that the One they address as Father is also the final Judge of every human being." WBC p. 60He judges without favoritism/impartially-cf. Acts 10:34, Rom. 2:11, 2 Chron. 19:7, Gal. 2:6, Eph. 6:9, Col. 3:25He judges each according to his works-cf. Psa. 62:12, Prov. 24:14, Jer. 17:10, Rom. 2:5, Rev. 20:12-13, 22:12, Matt. 16:27
Not salvation by works - Eph. 2:8-9, Rom. 8:1
He grades and rewards or punishes things done as a ChristianEph. 2:10, 1 Cor. 3:10-15, 4:1-5, Lk. 19:11-27, 2 Tim. 4:1417b Live the time of your pilgrimage in reverent fearLiveHave a lifestyle
Same word as v. 15For the time of your pilgrimage-cf. 1:1, 2:11A lifestyle of reverent fearNot paranoia or phobia, cf. 3:6, 14, 2 Tim. 1:7
But reverence toward God, cf. 2:17, Heb. 12:2818-21 The reason why we should do this:This reason also applies to the commands of vv. 13-1718-20 We are redeemed by the blood of Christ18a We know that -The focus is not so much on our knowing
But this is just a formula to introduce what follows18b-21 What we know:18b Neg: We were not redeemed with perishable things such as silver or goldRedeemedTo redeem means to purchase back with a price, such as a slave or prisoner of war - cf. Matt. 20:28, Mk. 10:45, Exo. 6:6-7
"The basic concept of reception is the exchanging of ownership, often by paying a price." Kennard, JETS Dec. 1987 p. 399
"There were people whose rightful place was back there in the homeland, alongside their brothers. But by a cruel accident of war they had fallen into the power of a strong enemy. They could not break free. Left to themselves, they would remain in captivity for the rest of their lives. If they were to be set free, money must be paid. For them to be restored to the place where they belonged, they must be bought out of their captivity. This buying of prisoners of war out of their captivity was the basic idea in redemption. But the redemption words came to be used of other forms of freeing people. They were sometimes used, for example, of setting slaves free." Morris The Atonement p. 108
"To his gentile readers, [redemption] may have suggested not so much the language of [the Old Testament] as that of the Roman custom of sacral manumission, a legal fiction by which a slave (or his benefactor) paid money into a temple treasury so that the god honored at that temple would 'purchase' or 'ransom' him from his master; he would then be the property of that god but in relation to society a free person....That Peter thought of the readers of his epistle in this way is suggested by 2:16. Where he characterized them 'as those who are free...yet as God's slaves.' Their redemption is first of all liberation from the past (cf. v. 14). Now seen as a form of slavery." WBC p. 64 - cf. Exo. 8:20, Rom. 6:16
"Petrine redemption is an act that focuses on requiring the redeemed to live differently. For example, the repeated command throughout 1 Peter remind believers of their obligation. The act of Christ redeeming them must be followed by their own action....Petrine redemption then is a definite act wherein Christ initially frees a person from his former futile way of life and this renders him under obligation to obey God in his new changed lifestyle." Kennard. p. 401
"The Christian must live life in reverence, because it cost so much, nothing less than the life and death of Jesus Christ. Since, then, life is such surpassing value, it cannot be wasted or thrown away." Barclay p. 188Not with perishable things like silver or gold-cf. v. 4, 7, 23, 3:4, Isa. 52:3
"Where Isaiah's point was redemption without the paying of a price. Peter's is redemption at a price far beyond silver or gold." WBC p. 63Redeemed from the futile way of life inherited from your forefathers-cf. Rom. 6:21, Eph. 2:1-4, 1 Pet. 4:3, 1:14, 2:1Way of lifeSame word as v. 17
"the [way of life] of the readers' past stands in sharpest possible contrast to the [way of life] required of them now (v. 15)." WBC p. 64FutileIdle, empty, fruitless, useless, powerless, lacking truth
-cf. Jer. 2:5, Acts 14:15, Rom. 1:21, Eph. 4:17inheritedPassed down from forefathers, almost as an assumption, taken for granted
Which now must be looked at more carefully and discarded if found wanting19-20 Pos: We were redeemed by the blood of Christ19 Spoken of in general termsBut by the precious blood of Christ-cf. 1:2, Acts 20:28, Heb. 9:12, 1 Cor. 6:20, 1 Clem. 7:4like a blameless and spotless lambA simile for comparison
Referring to the animals used for Old Testament sacrifices for sin - cf. Exo. 12:5, Gen. 22:8, 13, Isa. 53:7, Jn. 1:29
Blameless and spotless - Jesus was qualified to pay the debt for sin because he was sinless
-cf. 2 Cor. 5:2120 Specific description about ChristHe was foreordained before the foundation of the world-cf. 1:2, Acts 2:23, Eph. 1:4, Rev. 13:8He was revealed in the last time for your sakeRevealedAlready existing and prepared, but now made known
The veil was drawn awayIn the Last timeIn contrast with 'before the beginning of the world'
-cf. Heb. 9:26
"The phrase [in the last time] assumes a series of these time periods or 'ages' spanning the world's history, and affirms that the last of these has begun with the appearing of Christ" WBC p. 68for your sakeBrining this theoretical material to a personal level as a transition to what follows21 The effects of redemption on us21a Through Him, you are believers in God Who raised Him from the dead and gave Him gloryThrough Himbecause of what Jesus has doneWho raised Him from the dead-cf. Rom. 4:24, 10:9
"Jesus' resurrection was not simply a resumption or extension of earthly life, but the beginning of a new and transcendent existence (cf. 3:18-22)" WBC p. 69Who gave Him glory-cf. 1:1121b The Result: Your faith and hope are in God-cf. v. 13
"It is more than a mere repetition of [through him you are believers in God]. Peter's additional point is that what is now the experience of his readers (i.e. believing in God) was God's intention already when he raised Jesus Christ to glory." WBC p. 70
"By introducing hope at this point, he comes full circle back to v. 13, where the series of exhortations began, while at the same time reinforcing his insistence in vv. 3-9 simultaneously on the hope of salvation as an encouragement to faith, and on faith's testing during the interval before the hope is realized. The placement of [in God] at the very beginning ([blessed be God] v.3) and at the end, whether in the literary structure or in the horizons of the author's thought. In 1 Peter, faith no less than hope is pointed toward the future, and hope no less than faith is a response to God's work of redemption through Christ (v. 3) and governs the conduct of Christians in the present (3:15-16). If there is a new element introduced with the mention of hope, it is the possible implication that the God who raised up Jesus and gave Him glory will also raise and glorify those who hope in Him." WBC p. 70
1:22-2:3 Love according to New BirthDetailed Outline22-25 Love one another unceasingly22 Sincerely love one another unceasingly-cf. 4:8, Jn. 13:34, Rom. 12:10, Heb. 13:122a Having purified your soulsBy obedience to the truth-cf. 'ignorance' in v. 14 and 'empty way of life' in v. 18
as opposed to the 'gospel that was preached to you' in v. 12
-cf. 1:2, 14, Jn. 17:17, 19For the purpose of sincere love for fellow believers22b Therefore, love one anotherFrom a pure heartUnceasingly, continuouslyThe key term here is the word translated "unceasingly/continuously"
The rest of this section will explain and illustrate what Peter means when he uses this word
"[unceasingly] with the imperative [love] maintains the emphasis of the three previous imperatives in vv. 13, 15 and 17 on the necessity of fulfilling the commands 'until the end' or during the whole of the readers' allotted lifetime. vv. 23-25 in their turn can be understood as the explanation and elaboration of the [unceasingly] with which v. 22 concludes." WBC p. 7623-25 Reason: Your love should match your salvationYour salvation is active and enduring,
So your love should be active and enduring23 You were born from imperishable seed-cf. 1:3, Jn. 1:13, 3:3
Your salvation is active and enduring because it comes from seed that is active and enduring23a The fact - You were born again"Peter explains the experience of new birth here in much the same way that he explained the experience of redemption in vv. 18-19, by means of a contrast between perishable and imperishable things...Just as they were redeemed 'not with perishable things such as silver or gold' (v.18), so they were born anew 'not from the planting of perishable seed but from imperishable." WBC p. 7623b-c The means by which you are born againNeg: Not from perishable seed-cf. 1:4, 7, 18, 3:4Pos: But from imperishable [seed]-cf. Mk. 4:2-9, 14-21, 26-32Through the living and enduring word of GodLiving"The incorruptible quality of the seed which has been sown is thus accounted for by the living and enduring qualities of the [word]....The word as received [seed] is incorruptible because it reflect the permanence of the word as given by God." CBQ Vol. 36 p. 92Enduring"It is this quality of permanence that requires of Christian believers permanent and unremitting love (v.22)." WBC p. 7724-25 Reason: the life matches the seed24-25a General principle:Illustrated by a quote from Scripture (Isa. 40:6-8)
The Scripture highlights that the Word is active and enduring24 Negative contrast24a-b Comparison with perishable plants24a All flesh (mankind) is like grassin ways to be defined next24b All its glory is like the flower of grass-cf. 'empty, fruitless' in v. 18 as compared to 'glory' in vv. 7, 8, and 1124c-d The impermanence of plants-cf. Psa. 37:18-2024c The grass withers24d And the flower falls25a The Positive fact Peter is emphasizingBut the Word of the Lord remains forever-cf. Mk. 13:31, Matt. 5:18
It is enduring and does not fall
Like the love that Peter is encouraging25b The specific point of the quotationThis is the Word that was preached to you-cf. 1:12, 20, Isa. 40:9
The Word that was preached to them was active and enduring
Therefore, it gave birth to a life that is active and enduring
Therefore, their love should also be active and enduring
"[Peter] knows that brotherly affection among those who are not literally brothers and sisters is impossible without purification of soul, and that mutual love even in a community of shared belief is impossible without the new birth of which Jesus had spoken in the Gospel tradition. Without these things it is possible to be fond of other individuals and to have a commitment of sorts to a community or a cause. What is always lacking in such cases is that quality of constancy or steadfastness which Peter sums up with the adverb 'unremittingly.' The love or brotherly affection of which he speaks is an unremitting, imperishable love, because it has about it something of the nature of 'the living and enduring God.'" WBC p. 801-3 Grow in spiritual truth and maturity1-2 Act like you have been born againThereforePoints back to 1:23 where Peter says they have been born again. He continues this metaphor by telling them to act like figurative newborns in term of growth, both in putting aside their old life and craving the things of new life.1 Put off your old way of lifeLinked with v. 2 as a dependent participle, imperatival, but probably logically also means/manner relationshipRid yourself of all malice and all deceit, hypocrisy, envy and slander of every kind-cf. Eph. 4:22, Jms. 1:21
"Peter then listed five sins of attitude and speech, which if harbored would drive wedges between believers. malice is wicked ill-will; deceit is deliberate dishonesty; hypocrisy, pretended piety and love; envy, resentful discontent; and slander, backbiting lies. None of these should have any place in those who are born again. Rather in obedience to the Word, believers are to make decisive breaks with the past." Bible Knowledge Commentary, en loc2 Crave the things of your new life-cf. Jms. 1:21, Eph. 4:23-4
"Warnings against evil attitudes and practices have no point if nothing is provided to take their place. While urging his readers to get rid of all kinds of malice and deceit, Peter stirs in them instead a longing for God, and for all that God has to give." WBC p. 912a-b Single-mindedly crave spiritual nourishment-cf. 1 Cor. 3:2, Heb 5:12-132a Comparison: as newborn infants"The metaphor's point of comparison is not the smallness or innocence of a bay, but its strong and instinctive longing for a mother's milk." WBC p. 86
"Like newborn babies does not imply that Peter thought of his readers as young or immature Christians, for some of them had been Christians for thirty years. It only says that they are to long for spiritual milk in the same way that new babies long for milk (eagerly, frequently)...Milk in this context does not represent elementary Christian teaching (as it does in a different metaphor in 1 Cor. 3:2 and Heb. 5:12-13, where milk is contrasted with meat or solid food), but rather something to be eagerly desired for nourishment." Grudem, TNTC p. 942b Crave pure spiritual milkPureAs contrasted to 'deceit' of v. 1SpiritualBasically reminding that this is a metaphor and not to push the imagery too far. It is spiritual nourishment from God that is the point.MilkRefers to the teaching of the word, but it also refers to much more than that, like the baby partakes of the 'life' of the mother in milk, we partake and participate in the life of Christ.
"In light of 1:25 there can be no doubt that the medium by which the milk is received is the proclaimed message of the gospel, but the milk itself is more appropriately interpreted as the sustaining life of God given in mercy to his children." WBC pp. 88-92c Purpose: so that you may grow in it into salvation.-cf. 1:5, 9, 10, Eph. 4:14-16
"[salvation] in our passage points to a vindication arising inevitably, almost 'naturally,' out of the spiritual growth that results from receiving 'pure spiritual milk.'...There is a shift of emphasis between chapts. 1 and 2 but nothing more. The center of interest in 1:3-12 is the hope of final vindication, while in our passage it is the process of spiritual growth that precedes the end. In neither instance, however, is 'salvation' seen as anything other than God's decisive intervention on behalf of his people 'at the last day,' and in neither instance are his people seen as merely waiting passively for their eschatological reward. Rather, they are active participants in the drama of salvation, whether their participation is depicted as having their faith tested and proved genuine in 'various ordeals' in pagan society, or as feeding on the life-giving 'milk' of God's mercy for the well-being of their minds and souls." WBC pp. 89-90
"Salvation is seen not as a last minute rescue operation from the outside but as the fitting consummation of a process already at work in and among Christian believers." WBC p. 913 Reason: You have experienced that the Lord is good-cf. Psa. 34:8, Eph. 4:21, Matt. 11:29
In the form of a condition "if you have...", challenging the reader with the opposite possibility. But most likely an assumed condition "Since you have..." giving the reason.
Not all the benefits of the Christian are future, we have indeed experienced the kindness and goodness of Christ.
We are reminded of this past experience as a motivation to continue to crave the things of God, and in so doing, continue to experience His goodness and continue to grow into the consummating experience of His goodness, our salvation.
"Once a person has come to taste the graciousness and goodness of the Lord, he should have a continuing appetite for spiritual food." EBC 12.228
2:4-8 Sharing the destiny of the "stone"Detailed Outline4-6 Those who come to the Lord have a great future and identity4-5 As we come to the Lord, He builds us up4 We are coming to the Lord[by] coming to Him-cf. Matt. 11:28, Jn. 1:12, 5:40, 6:35, 37, Jms. 4:8, Psa. 34:5
Possibly imperative - "come to Him"
More likely means - "by coming to Him," "insomuch as we come to Him"Elaboration of who "He" isto Whomrefers back to "The Lord" of v. 3The Stone-cf. Dan. 2:34, Isa. 8:14, Psa. 118:22
Peter is using a metaphor which Jesus Himself used (drawing attention to OT passages) to explain about himself
These passages were some of the most frequently quoted OT passages in the NT to talk about Jesus.
Peter will more fully quote these passages and explain their significance in the verses which followLiving-cf. 1:2, 23, Jn. 5:25, 6:57
"Living" seems like an unusual word to describe stones
Peter will elaborate on the significance of this in the verses which followRejected by men-cf. Mk. 8:31, Lk. 9:22, 17:25, Jn. 1:10-11but chosen and precious to God-cf. v. 7, 1:19-20, Isa. 42:1
"Perhaps the key word in 1 Pet. 2:4-10 is not 'stone' but 'chosen'. As Christ was chosen by God but rejected by men (2:4), so also believers are chosen by God but rejected by men (2:9-10 and the 'alien' motif in v. 11; cf. also the alien/chosen motif in 1:1-2)." JETS 32/2 (June 1989). p. 1945 We are being built into a spiritual house5a-b He is building us5a Like living stones-cf. Jn. 11:25-26, 14:19
"...it is meant to apply secondarily to the readers, the 'living stones,' as well as to Christ. they too are 'rejected by people generally but in God's sight choice and precious.' For their identity is to be defined over against those who do not belong to their number." WBC p. 995b You yourselves are bing built up to be a spiritual house-cf. Eph. 2:19-22, 1 Cor. 3:9, 16, 6:19, 1 Tim. 3:155c the Purpose: to be a holy priesthood offering spiritual sacrificesPeter is slightly changing the metaphor
Before, we were living stones built into a spiritual house [referring to the temple], now we are the priesthood serving in the temple
Both are metaphors ('living stones,' 'spiritual house' and 'spiritual sacrifices' not literal stones and house and sacrifices) but they both speak about the same reality - we bring honor and glory to God by our worshipful attitude and lifestyleTo be a holy priesthood-cf. v. 9, 1:16, Isa 61:6, Rev. 5:10
"To be the people of God is not only a privilege but a responsibility, and in particular a priestly responsibility. Before there was a special priestly class in Israel, there was the idealized notion of all Israel as a priesthood (Exod. 19:6), and it is to this ancient notion that Peter makes his appeal." WBC p. 96Offering spiritual sacrifices, pleasing to God through Jesus Christspiritual-cf. Jn. 4:22-24pleasing to God-cf. Rom. 12:1, Phil. 4:18
"That the spiritual sacrifices are 'acceptable to God through Jesus Christ' supports the view that they are above all acts of worship." WBC p. 102through Jesus Chirst-cf. Heb. 13:15-16
"[through Jesus Christ] corresponds in its significance to the [through him] of 1:21: even as they have believed in God through Jesus Christ, the readers of the epistle now offer to God acceptable worship through him." WBC p. 102
"...the spiritual sacrifices are first of all something offered up to God as worship and, second, a pattern of social conduct. The two aspects cannot be separated, and the priority is always the same." WBC p. 1016 The reason this is so:6a Disclosure formulaIt is contained in Scripture6b-c Scripture quote:quoting from Isa. 28:166b Behold, I am placing a stone in Zion - a chosen and precious cornerstoneCornerstonemost important, most essential stone, which gives shape to the rest of the buildingChosenselect, excellent
-cf. v. 4 'chosen by God'valuable/precious-cf. v.4 'precious to God'
Notice that the two terms used by Peter to describe Jesus in v. 4 are taken from the Isaiah quote which he anticipates in v. 4, and quotes in this verse
He also implies that these same terms apply to believers, who are also 'stones'6c Whoever believes in Him will in no way be put to shame-cf. Psa. 25:1-3, 34:5, Isa. 61:7, 45:16-17, 50:6-7, 54:4-5Whoever believesthe one who trusts in HimWill in no way"Will most certainly not...""
Emphatic strengthened negative construction to make the denial more forcefulBe put to shamebe left un-vindicated
The future and final vindication of believers is a major theme of 1 Peter7-8 The implications of this:There are two types of people (those who believe and those who don't)
- with two types of futures7a To those who believe, [God will give] honor-cf. 1:6, 1 Sam. 2:30
"the 'honor' or 'praise' to which Peter refers is final vindication before God, the equivalent of never being put to shame; it is the same vindication already described more fully as 'praise, glory, and honor at the time when Jesus Christ is revealed' (1:7)" WBC p. 1047b-8 To those who disbelieve, it is a different story7b General statement: To those who do not believe7c-8 Specific details: the stone has a different relation to them7c-8b The way that the 'stone' has different relations to them7c-d The stone which the builders rejected has become the most important part of the buildingCornerstone = most important stone - either the chief foundation stone or the central keystone of an arch
Quoting Psa. 118:22, cf. Matt. 21:42-44, Acts 4:9-12
The stone is vindicated and their judgment is shown to be false7c The stone which was rejected by the builders7d This stone has become the head of the corner8a The stone has become a stone of stumblingQuoting Isa. 8:14
A stumbling stone which trips up people and brings them to harm8b The stone has become a rock of offense-cf. Rom. 9:32-33, Lk. 2:34, 1 Cor. 1:23, Gal 5:11
A scandal/offense8c-e The results to unbelievers of this rejection8c-d They stumble by rejection of the Word8c They stumble8d Because they rejected (refused to believe or obey) the word-cf. 1:14, 22
"The point of the statement that unbelievers 'stumble by disobeying the word' is not that 'stumbling' is synonymous with the rejection of the Christian message, but that it is a consequence of that rejection. In simplest terms, it is the opposite of divine vindication, the negative equivalent of the 'honor' reserved for Christian believers of not being 'put to shame'." WBC p. 1068e Reason: They were ordained to this"[they were appointed for this] corresponds to the [I am placing] of the first quotation in v. 6; there are two 'appointings' or 'destinies' - one, of the 'choice and precious stone, a cornerstone in Zion,' to vindication, and the other of those who 'disobey the word' to shame and stumbling." WBC p. 95
"The matching verbs do not represent two distinct 'appointings' but one with a twofold result....In the single act of raising Jesus from the dead, God has laid the 'choice and precious Stone' that means honor and vindication for those who believe, but stumbling and shame for the disobedient." WBC p. 107
2:9-10 Elaboration of the destiny/hope of those who believeDetailed Outline9 You have a new identity from GodThese two verses further explain the 'honor' of v. 7a
vv. 7b-8 spoke of the result of the choice for the unbelievers, now Peter elaborates on the other side of the coin for believers.
"The words [but you]...introduce a series of honorific titles spelling out the [honor] of those who believe...vv. 9-10 unfold both the present and future aspects of this 'honor'....All four of these titles of honor appear to be adaptations of titles from either Exod. 19:6 or Isa. 43:20-21. With the use of these titles, Peter makes explicit his basis for consistently addressing his Gentile Christian readers as if they were Jews." WBC p. 107
Notice there is both continuity and discontinuity between OT Israel and the NT believers
Notice that the positions of honor come with significant responsibility and purpose9a Who you are in ChristYou are a chosen race-cf. 1:2, Isa. 43:20-21, Deut. 10:14-15, 7:6
"Within 1 Peter, the use of [chosen] here for the Christian community as a whole is a corollary of its use for Christ the 'living stone' in vv. 4 and 6, recalling as well the [chosen] of Peter's initial address to his readers as individuals in 1:1." WBC p. 108[You are] a royal priesthood-cf. Exod. 19:6, Isa. 61:6, Rev. 1:6
"This means that every Christian has the right of access to God; and that he must offer his work, his worship and himself to God." Barclay p. 199.[You are] a holy nation-cf. 1:2, 16, Exod. 19:6, Isa. 62:12
"Although [nation] is not used here to distinguish Israel from the surrounding nations, the adj. 'holy' is used and this is pivotal. It is the one thing that makes them distinguishable from the nations. They are separated to God and from the nations. They are holy unlike the rest of the nations." Smith p. 25[You are] a people for God's possession-cf. Exod. 19:5-6, Isa. 43:20-21, Deut. 4:20, 7:6, 14:2, 26:18, Acts 20:28, 1 Cor. 6:19-20, Titus 2:13-14
"In Exod. 19:5 we find God promising Israel that they shall be his possession if they keep his covenant. Their being a people for God's possession 'From among all the peoples' is conditioned on their obedience, keeping the covenant. If they do not obey then he will dispossess them and turn his back on them (Dt. 31:17)." Smith p. 329b The purpose for this new identityTo proclaim the wonderful deeds-cf. Isa. 43:21
"Whatever else they may imply, the 'spiritual sacrifices' are first of all the praise of God by His people...[wonderful deeds] does not refer to God's 'virtues' of ethical qualities in an abstract sense but to His praiseworthy deeds." WBC p. 110of the One Who called you"What God has done is immediately defined by who he is" WBC p. 111out of darkness"The 'darkness' of which Peter speaks is the same as the 'ignorance' (1:14) that belonged to his readers' Gentile past....It was the darkness of not being a people and of not knowing the mercy of God (v. 10)" WBC p. 111into His marvelous light-cf. Isa. 42:6-7, 16
The light is the sum total of the relationships started in v. 9, the 'being a people' and 'receiving mercy' of v. 10, and the future rewards promised throughout. It is both present and future.
"The elect community lives between the darkness of its pagan past and the light of its eschatological future. Alienated from the one and not yet at home in the other, it is a community of 'strangers and foreigners' in the Roman Empire (2:11; cf. 1:1)" WBC p. 11210 This new identity is a complete change from your old oneSpecifically describes 'darkness to light'10a-b Change of your relationship to one another10a Once you were not a people-cf. Hos. 1:9-10, 2:1, 2310b Now you are the people of God"This means that the Christian is called out of insignificance into significance. It continually happens in this world that a man's greatness lies not in himself but in what has been given him to do. The Christian's greatness lies in the fact that God has chosen him to be his man and to do his work in the world. No Christian can be ordinary, for he is a man of God." Barclay p. 19810c-d Change of relationship to God10c You were not the ones who received mercy10d Now you are the ones who received mercy"Peter uses the terminology to remind his Gentile readers that they are Gentiles. They were not always the people of god but have become so by God's mercy now revealed in Jesus Christ (cf. 1:3; Eph. 2:4)" WBC p. 112
2:11-12 Theme - Live Worthily
2:11-12 Theme - Live worthily as aliens to disprove slanderersDetailed Outline11a Intro Address: Beloved, I urge youThis type of formula is often used to introduce a new thought or section of thought in the New Testament, e.g. Rom. 12:1, 15:30, 16:17, 1 Cor 1:10, Eph. 4:1, 1 Thes. 4:1, 5:12, 14, esp. 1 Pet. 4:12
"The same function can be assigned here to [Dear friends, I urge you]...The brief appeal thus introduced is best understood as a heading to 2:11-4:11 in its entirety." WBC p. 115
"In the broadest sense, the structure of 1 Peter is marked out by two occurrences of the direct address, 'Dear friends' in 2:11 and 4:12. These divide the epistle into three parts, 1:1-2:10, 2:11-3:11, and 4:12-5:14.1. The theme of the first part is the identity of the people of God established on the basis of the great salvation Christ has accomplished on their behalf. Their identity as a 'chosen' people is affirmed programmatically in the address (1:1-2) and confirmed in the concluding pronouncements of 2:9-10...This identity as God's people rests on the experience of salvation (1:5, 9-10; 2:3) or rebirth (1:3, 22-23; 2:2-3).WBC p. xxxiv-xxxv.
2. The address, 'Dear friends, I appeal to you,' in 2:11 marks a shift from the identity of God's people to their consequent responsibility in a hostile world. If 1:3-2:10 expanded on their identity as 'chosen people' (cf. 1:2), the reference to them as 'aliens and strangers' in 2:11 serves as a reminder that they are at the same time 'living as strangers' (again cf. 1:2) in contemporary society. Their mission to the worlds is summarized generally in 2:11-12 and specifically in 2:13-3:12"11b-d Overcome the enemies within11b-c Abstain from fleshly desires-cf. Isa. 55:7, Acts 15:29, Eph. 4:22, 1 Thes. 5:22, Heb. 12:111b As aliens and strangers-cf. Heb. 11:9-10, 13-16, 13:14
"The basis of [Peter's"] appeal is not his own identity or status (as in 5:1), but that of his readers. Their identity as 'aliens and strangers' in Roman society is what necessitates the moral demands that will follow." WBC p. 116
"These two words [aliens and strangers] give us two great truths about the Christian. (a) There is a real sense in which he is a stranger in the world; and because of that he cannot accept the world's laws and ways and standards. Others may accept them; but the Christian is a citizen of the Kingdom of God and it is by the laws of that Kingdom that he must direct his life....(b) The Christian is not a permanent resident upon earth; he is ont he way to the country which is beyond. He must therefore, do nothing which would keep him from reaching his ultimate goal." Barclay p. 201.
-cf. Shepherd of Hermas 5011c Abstain from fleshly desires-cf. Matt. 5:29-30, Rom. 6:6, 13:14, Gal. 5:16-17, Col. 3:5, 1 Pet. 4:2
"Fleshly desires and sins of the flesh include not only the grosser sins but all that is characteristic of fallen human nature." Barclay p. 200
"Because they are aliens and strangers in Roman society by virtue of their election. Peter urges on his readers a clean moral break with the natural impulses of their past (cf. 1:14; 4:2)...Peter characterizes these impulses as merely physical in motivation and intent, centered on self-preservation and material well-being....In light of the emphasis on suffering in the remainder of his epistle, it appears that the principal factors that Peter sees undermining a person's life are the natural impulses toward comfort, self-protection, and self-gratification....Such natural impulses, although not intrinsically evil for Peter, must yield to other, more vital considerations, centered on what he calls the soul." WBC pp. 116-711d Reason: which wage war against your soul-cf. Luke 9:23-25, Rom. 7:23, 8:13, Jms. 4:1
We must never settle for second best if it will keep us from God's best. We must sometimes sacrifice our present for our future, never sacrifice your future for your past. We must lose our life in order to gain it. cf. Mk. 8:35-3712 Overcome the external enemies-cf. Rom. 12:21
Overcoming the enemies within and the external enemies are not two separate things but are interrelated as two sides of the same coin.
"Peter starts with the assumption that the first and most immediate conflict is within the Christian believer. That is, between the 'natural impulses' toward survival and acceptance in Roman society, and the 'soul' or new life focused on God and the approaching 'day of visitation.' The resolution of this individual conflict is the key to the resolution of the social conflict between Christians and their detractors." WBC p. 120
This verse is the primary theme of the whole middle section of this epistle. It is a general command to have excellent conduct. this is worked out throughout the rest of this section specifically in the following real-life situations: citizens and rulers (2:13-17), slaves and masters (2:18-25), wives and husbands (3:1-7), persecutors and persecuted (3:8-4:6), and a concluding summary outlining excellent conduct for the whole church (4:7-11)12a Have excellent conduct among the Gentiles [unbelievers]-cf. 2 Pet. 3:10-13, Phil 1:21, 1 Tim. 4:12, Jms. 3:13, Phil. 2:15-16
'conduct' here is the same word used in 1:15-18 and means habitual way of life, not just being on your best behavior when someone is watching
"The emphasis here is on conduct that can be seen and appreciated as 'good' even by fellow citizens who are not believers in Christ." WBC p. 117.12b-e The purpose of doing so:12b-d You may show the beauty of the Christian life12b-c Even though they speak of you as [if you are] evildoers-cf. Matt. 10:25, Jn. 15:18-21
"The closest English equivalent is 'in case' or 'in a case (or situation) where' [they speak of you as evildoers]" WBC p. 117
Christians have been misunderstood, slandered, and maligned behind their back and to their face throughout history. Very often Christians have been socially and/or violently persecuted. Jesus warned that it would be the norm for Christians. Peter knew this and assumed that this type of persecution was happening to his readers12d they may see and take notice of your good works.-cf. 1 Thes. 4:11-12
"The context, both her and in 3:2 suggests an act of observing that leads to a change of mind or outlook, like having one's eyes opened to something not seen before. Peter's interest is not in the act or moment of conversion itself, but in conversion's cause ('from observing your good works') and final result ('to glorify God on the day of visitation')." WBC p. 118
"Slanderous charges were continually being made against the Christians; and the only effective way to refute them was to live lives so lovely that they would be seen to be obviously untrue." Barclay p. 201
"The only way to refute accusations of wrongdoing is to 'do good'." WBC p. 11812e The Result: They may be among those who glorify God in the day of His visitation (they may be converted)-cf. Matt. 5:16Glorify God-cf. Jn. 15:8, 1 Pet. 4:11
"The use of the term here evidently signals repentance or religious conversion at or before the last day." WBC p. 118The day of His visitation-cf Lk. 19:44, Isa. 10:3
this could mean the day when God visits them with initial salvation, but more likely in 1 Peter it means the last day of either praise or judgment; that those who used to slander Christians would have been brought around by observing the lives of Christians to join their number and be a part of those who will glorify God in that day.
"Peter's hope for those who now despised and slandered the Christian community was that they would change their minds and join in the chorus of praise to God that distinguished Christians from the rest of the world. The scenario was...that simply by observing the 'good conduct' or 'good works' of those who believed in Christ, the accusers would see that their charges were false. Acknowledging the faith of the Christians as true and the God of the Christians as worthy of their worship, they would 'glorify God on the day of visitation' (cf. the scenario played out between a believing wife and an unbelieving husband according to 3:1-2)." WBC p. 118 - cf. 1 Cor 7:16
"Whether we like it or not, every Christian is an advertisement for Christianity, by his life he either commends it to others or makes them think less of it. The strongest missionary force in the world is a Christian life." Barclay p. 202.
2:13-4:11 Live worthily in immanent suffering
2:13-17 Live worthily before governmentsDetailed Outline13-16 The command: Subject yourself for the Lord's sake13-15 Subject yourself to all human institutions13-14 Subject Yourself13a Subject yourself to every human institution because of the Lord-cf. Rom. 13:1-5, Titus 3:1, Eph. 5:21Subject yourselfIt is a command, so it involves an act of the will
It is not automatic, it is not forced under compulsion
We must subject ourselves voluntarily
Therefore, this kind of subjection demonstrates the same kind of power Christ demonstrated by subjecting Himself
Subjection is not a sign of servile weakness, but a sign of moral strength
To every social structurelit. "every human creation," i.e. human institution, social structure, human form of authorityBecause of the LordFirst of all, because He has commanded it
Also, because we know that our submission is part of His greater plan - cf. v. 12, 15
Also, because we are following in the footsteps of Jesus - cf. 1:11, 2:21-23, Heb. 2:10, 5:7-8
"Peter requires cooperation and compliance not because the state requires it, but 'for the sake of the Lord'." WBC p. 12413b-14 Specifically: To whom to be subjectto the king, who exercises authority over youAnd to the governor who is sent by him"Peter continues to be specific as he brings his appeal closer to where his readers actually live. It is often easier to honor the emperor from a distance than to respect the authority of his local representatives." WBC p. 125To punish evildoersAnd to praise doers of goodPeter is advocating, by clear implication, not just abstaining from doing evil, but positively doing good
"Men join themselves together and agree to live under certain laws, so that the good man may have peace to do his work and go about his business and the evil man may be restrained and kept from his evil-doing. According to the New Testament life is meant by God to be an ordered business and the state is divinely appointed to provide and to maintain that order." Barclay p. 20515 The Reason: This is God's will:-cf. 3:1715a By doing good-cf. Matt. 5:1615b To silence the ignorant talk of foolish menlit. 'to muzzle'
To overcome those opposing/persecuting Christians by good deeds is a recurring theme in 1 Peter cf. 2:12, 3:1616 Further explanations16a [Subject yourself] as being free peopleThis is to be voluntary subjection, not mandatory, not as a slave
This means that subjection may be subordinate to other, higher concerns16b-c Specifically what it means to be a free person16b Neg: not using your freedom as a covering/disguise for evil deeds-cf. Gal. 5:1, 13
This freedom is not unqualified, it comes with responsibilities
Christian freedom can be the occasion for sinful self-deception - beware!16c Pos: but as slaves to God."Christians are free from all that bound them in the past, but at the same time they are slaves of God committed to full and unqualified obedience." WBC p. 128
"Christian freedom is always conditioned by Christian responsibility: Christian responsibility is always conditioned by Christian love. Christian love is the reflection of God's love. And, therefore, Christian liberty can rightly be summed up in Augustine's memorable phrase: 'Love God, and do what you like.' The Christian is free because he is the slave of God. Christian freedom does not mean being free to do as we like; it means being free to do as we ought." Barclay p. 207
Because Christians are slaves to God, they have responsibilities to the state, first to submit freely to good and just laws, even unpopular ones out of reverence to God.
Christians are not to use their freedom in Christ to break just laws or as an excuse to neglect their duties to the state.
Finally Christians have a higher loyalty to God and must promote justice and righteousness in the state and stand against injustice and unrighteousness of the state, realizing that they must do this in lawful ways if at all possible, and if it is necessary for conscious' sake to break unjust laws, realizing that they must be willing to pay the penalty for breaking these laws17 Summary of what to do:-cf. Matt. 5:43-48, 22:2117a Honor all men17b Love the brotherhood-cf. 1:22, Rom. 12:10, Heb. 13:1, Jn. 13:3417c Fear God-cf. Prov. 1:7, 24:2117d Honor the King-cf. Rom. 13:7
"The necessary stance of the Christian community is further described in vv. 16-17 with two corollary questions in mind: (1) What have the universal obligations of Christians to their fellow citizens to do with their particular obligations to one another? (2) What do their obligations to the emperor and civil magistrates have to do with their obligation to God? The answer follows in a terse four-part maxim in v. 17. The first two and the last two form pairs: respect is for everyone but love is for fellow believers - God deserves reverent fear while the emperor deserves respect" WBC p. 123
The loyalties and responsibilities have a priority and precedence. Our responsibilities to God and the church are greater than our responsibilities to rulers and all people. But our responsibility to God keeps us from neglecting our responsibilities to all the others.
2:18-25 Slaves live worthily by Christ's example
Detailed Outline18 Slaves submit to masters with reverenceThis passage is part of what is often called a
- Gk. Sentence Flow
- Sentence Flow
- Mini Word Studies
- Historical Details
- Teaching Outline
- Theology/Exegesis Paper
house code,where the author gives separate instructions to the different members of a typical household. Other examples of this kind of house code are found in Eph. 6:5-9 and Col. 3:22-25.18a Slaves submit to masters with all reverenceThis is the same word
submitthat Peter used for all people submitting to rightful authorities (2:13), for wives submitting to husbands (3:1), and younger men submitting to elders (5:5). This is a participle with imperative force (see BDF § 268 (2)). And it means to obey in a subordinate relationship.
And they were commanded to submit with reverent fear (see 1:17, 3:2, 14, 16, Eph. 6:5). This has a connotation of respect and reverence, but it also includes fear, because the masters had the authority to harm them. And in the context of this passage, this attitude of reverent fear is not primarily toward their masters. It is primarily toward God, Who is the ultimate master of all.
This command was intended for household slaves in those particular churches. But this commands and its accompanying reasons and required attitude, can also apply to other authority relationships. And we need to keep in mind that there are limits to submission as seen in other Scriptures and in the nature and legitimacy of the authority. We can give no human or human institution unquestioned ultimate submission, because that belongs only to God.18b-c Specifically: to whom to submit18b Neg: Not only to the good and kind masters
goodis the generic word for good. This implies the kind of characteristics the slaves would wish their master to have.
kindhas the connotation of tolerant and forbearing - not harshly punishing any deviation from custom. This kind of master would allow the slave to have some leeway and a measure of freedom in their life and activities.18c Pos: But also to the harsh ones
harshhas the connotation of being morally twisted. We would describe these masters as crooked, unscrupulous, or unjust.
In that day, the life and treatment of the slaves depended entirely on the character and mood of their master. And slaves were typically expected to share the same culture and religion as their masters. So, a Christian slave of a non-Christian master was sometimes seen as a threat and persecuted as disloyal to the family. So, Peter clarified that they were to submit to their masters, even when they were harsh and unjust.
In that day, the slaves' options were limited. If they would have fought back or run away, they would have risked being killed, because slave rebellion carried the death penalty in the Roman empire. And that is why Peter did not counsel that kind of response. Rather, he gave a better response, based on the reality of the Gospel and the hope that all Christians have as elect strangers.19-25 Two Reasons:19-20 First Reason: This is right and pleasing to God19 It is good to bear under unjust suffering19a For this is praiseworthyThis means that it is pleasing to God, it brings God's favor. And this strongly implies that God will reward them for it. This proposition does not explicitly mention God. But this is clearly meant, as evidenced by the mention of the
consciousness of Godin 19b and the specific mention of being
praiseworthy before Godin the summary statement of 20h.
This refers to whatever brings someone God's favor and goodwill, or wins a favorable response from God, as elaborated in v. 20. Of course, in the larger New Testament, most of God's favor and grace is completely undeserved and not conditioned at all on our works. But there is also some teaching in the New Testament that tells us how to live in a way that places us in the condition where God's tangible favor is more readily experienced.19b-d The condition for it to be praiseworthyThis is the explanation and elaboration of the previous statement, describing what kind of behavior is praiseworthy and pleasing to God.19b-c If someone responds in this way:19b The Reason: If, because of consciousness of God,That is, because they are mindful of God. They are aware of God, and keep God's character and promised vindication in mind as the reason for their bearing up under suffering.19c Someone bears sufferingIf the person endures, they bear up under this pain and affliction. This assumes that they bear it in a Christian manner - they bear it rightly, graciously, and humbly, as Peter will explain in v. 20 and illustrate with Christ's example in 21-25.19d [in the situation where they are] suffering unjustly/undeservedlyThis praiseworthiness only applies to situations where they are suffering unjustly, as Peter will explain in v. 20. In this situation, it might be expected that a person would complain and fight back, because the suffering is unjust. But for Peter, it is praiseworthy because they don't respond as expected.20 Reason: Some kinds of suffering are praiseworthy, some are notThis verse is an elaboration and explanation of the previous verse. It uses a negative/positive contrast to describe some suffering that is praiseworthy by contrasting it with some suffering that is not.20a-d Neg: Some are not praiseworthyThis uses a rhetorical question to describe what kind of suffering is not praiseworthy, in order to highlight that which is praiseworthy by contrast.20a What credit is it?This is a rhetorical question. Peter is stating that there is no credit, there is no honor in what he is about to describe. This is what is not meritorious in any way. The word
credithas the connotation of good reputation and high status. It is the legitimate honor which is deserved based on some good accomplishment.
This negative statement of what is of no credit is setting up for a positive statement reinforcing the previous proposition, which described what is pleasing to God, and therefore is a credit and honor to the person who does it.20b-d Condition: If you bear under suffering which you deserveThis is a hypothetical with a number of related conditions, used to state what is not praiseworthy, what is of no credit.20b-c Situation: If you suffer for sin.20b If You sinPeter used the general word for sin. This means any activity that is against God's will or which fails to live up to God's will and character. This word covers all possibilities of cause for deserved suffering.20c And you are beaten as a resultThis is deserved suffering. This type of suffering, illustrated by the specific experience of physical beating, is deserved because of the person's sin.20d Response: And You bear up under itThis is a different word than
bearused in 19c. It has the connotation of endurance, to stand firm and put up with it in the midst of affliction and persecution.
To endure under deserved suffering is nothing unusual, nothing praiseworthy. Usually there is no choice but to endure in this kind of affliction. So, there is no credit in this. The person is only getting what they deserved.20e-h Pos: Some are praiseworthyThis is the positive side of the contrast, describing what kind of suffering is praiseworthy.20e-g Condition: If you bear up under unjust/undeserved suffering20e-f Situation: If you do good and suffer anyway20e Even if you do good
doing goodis also a generic word covering all types of appropriate and positive behavior. This is an adversative clause, showing that what happens is against the expected response for doing good.
You still suffer even though you did not deserve it, even though you behaved well.20f And still sufferThis is Peter's standard word for suffering, which he also used in 19d.20g Response: And bear your sufferings patiently
bearis the same word Peter used in 20d. But because the suffering is undeserved in this case, it is implied that this takes more patience and endurance, enduring not only the punishment and suffering, but also the injustice.20h This is praiseworthy before GodThis phrase summarizes all of v. 20 and ties it to v. 19. All of v. 20, by the negative/positive contrast has elaborated and illustrated the kind of response that deserves honor and favor. And here Peter explicitly says that this favor is before, or in the sight/opinion of God. This clearly says what was only implied in 19a.So, for Peter, there are three main factors in suffering rightly: 1) that you are mindful of God, 2) That you suffer well, not returning in kind, and 3) that you suffer innocently – your suffering is not deserved by your own conduct. Later in chapter 4 (vv. 15-16) Peter will tell his readers,
If you suffer, it should not be as a murderer or thief or any other kind of criminal, or even as a meddler, but if you suffer because you are a Christian, you should not be ashamed.
So, the first reason Peter gave for his readers to submit to unjust suffering is that it is pleasing to God when we suffer in the right way, with the implication that God will eventually reward.21-25 Second Reason: It is part of God's plan21 We are called to follow Jesus' example21a You were called to this
thisrefers to bearing up well under unjust suffering. The context makes this clear.
calledis the standard New Testament word for being chosen for a special benefit, experience, responsibility, and/or task. It also implies a new kind of relationship with the One doing the calling (God). For Peter's readers, this is a reminder that their suffering is not just the random accident of fate or chance in an impersonal universe. Rather, it is the carefully chosen providence of the One they trust as their Heavenly Father. And it is not just one slave being singled out for the painful experience of unjust suffering. All true believers in Christ are called to this experience to at least some extent. Sometimes suffering is a part of God's plan for each of us. We were called to this.21b-d Reason: Jesus gave us an example21b-c Jesus suffered, leaving us an example21b Because also Christ suffered for usPeter included the word
alsoto remind his readers that they were not alone in their suffering. Jesus Himself also suffered, and therefore knew what they were going through. But this also reminded them that their suffering was small in comparison with the suffering that Jesus endured on their behalf.
sufferedis the same word used in 19d and 20f.
And Christ's suffering was on their behalf. They were recipients of the benefits brought about by the suffering of Jesus. This fact encourages them that they were elect, with an eternal destiny purchased by Christ. But it also prepared for the following statements, encouraging them with the benefits they had received in order to strengthen them to suffer for the benefit of others.21c Result: leaving us an exampleThere are many times in the New Testament where Jesus is said to be an example for His followers (e.g. Jn. 13:13-17, Mk. 10:42-45). There are an abundance of ways that we cannot follow His example, because His identity and mission are unique. And He is much more to us than just an example for us to follow. But He is not less than an example. There are many ways He demonstrated how were are to live and He expects us to follow His example.
Peter highlighted one particular way that Christ modeled behavior to his readers, which was most applicable to their current experience suffering as slaves under unjust masters.21d Purpose: that we would follow in His footstepsThis is obviously the purpose statement elaborating on why Jesus left us an example. The metaphor to follow in His footsteps means to broadly follow in the pattern He left, even if the particulars are not exactly the same. Peter highlighted the model of Jesus' attitude, which led to His particular actions and responses. Peter's readers are to actually use Jesus' behavior as a model which they emulate in their own lives. They are to take on the attitude and mindset of Jesus in the midst of suffering, and from that attitude, respond in a way most appropriate to their own circumstances.22-25 Specifically: the example He left for us to followPeter connected the reader with the example of Christ, and he connected Christ with the suffering servant of Isaiah 53. These verses contain two quotes and many allusions from Isaiah chapter 53.22-23 He suffered innocently22 He didn't sinThis verse is a quote from Isa. 53:922a He didn't commit sinJesus was completely sinless throughout His life. But here Peter emphasized that during His arrest, trial, suffering and death, He committed no sin in responding to the injustice committed against Him. He was innocent of the false charges against Him, and He responded to His punishment in an innocent manner.22b And deceit was not found in His mouthHe never spoke in a deceiving or treacherous manner. But Peter's emphasis is that He did not resort to verbal trickery or flattery to get out of suffering. The Gospels note that Jesus was mostly silent at His own trial. This was noted by Pilate, who was used to prisoners either pleading, threatening or saying anything to try to get out of their punishment.23 He bore suffering in a godly way23a-d Neg: What He did not doThis verse alludes to Isa. 53:723a-b He did not abuse His abuserscf. 3:9.23a Even though He was insultedJesus was insulted at His trial. He was abused and mocked by the soldiers in preparation for His execution. And He was mocked and insulted by the people while He was hanging on the cross.23b He did not insult back
insult backis related to the word
insultin the previous proposition. Jesus did not respond in kind when He was mocked and abused. Rather, as the Gospels tell us, He prayed for those who were mocking and crucifying Him.23c-d He did not threaten when suffering23c Even though He suffered
sufferedis the same word used in 19d, 20f, and 21b. Christ suffered beating, mocking, and crucifixion. Peter's point here is to emphasize Christ's response to His experience of suffering, as stated in the next proposition.23d He did not threatenChrist did not speak of His authority to judge those harming Him, even though He truly had that authority. He never threatened them with retribution. Rather, He prayed for them. He did not respond with hate and reviling to those who hated and reviled Him. Rather, He responded with love and pity. All of Christ's responses were so far from what was typical and expected of a prisoner in His situation, that they were noticed and remarked by everyone involved.23e Pos: But He entrusted Himself to the One Who judges righteouslyAll of the previous mention of what Christ did not do was leading to this emphasis on what Christ did do. Christ's attitude and actions demonstrated that He was fully mindful of God and His plan throughout all of His experience of suffering. He entrusted Himself to God, knowing that God would make it right. Jesus modeled faith and looking forward to future reward, knowing that His vindication would happen, because God is faithful and always judges rightly. Jesus knew that His case would be heard by a higher court and that God's justice is never corrupted or mistaken. So, Christ suffered innocently and rightly because He knew that God would make it right in the end.And this is the overall attitude that Peter was teaching his readers. They could follow Christ's example of suffering innocently, because they were chosen, and therefore, they could temporarily live as strangers, even suffering, because they knew their destiny.24-25 He suffered redemptively24a-c He suffered for our sins so we would be set free from them24a He Himself bore our sins in His body on the crossThis is a quote from Isa. 53:11, and also echoes Isa. 53:4 and 53:6.
By the word order, Peter put emphasis on the phrase
our sins.Our sins were the reason for Christ's death, and the purpose and result of His death is to deal with our sins and their effects, including our guilt and lostness. There is also an echo of the emphasis from Isa. 53:4-6 which alternates between the first person (we, our, us) and the third person (he, him, his). This constant back and forth between
usin Isaiah drew attention to the substitutionary nature of the servant's work. This is reflected in how Jesus took our sins and their penalty on Himself, and we received the benefits of His obedience and righteousness. And there is also emphasis on Christ as the One who bore our sins. There is an emphatic pronoun,
He Himselfis the One who removed our sins.
boreis often used as a technical term for offering sacrifice, so this phrase may have connotations of the sacrificial system. But in this context, the object is not some sort of sacrificial offering, but rather our sins. It also could mean
endurewhich would make sense in this context, and serve as encouragement to slaves having to endure the sins of their unjust masters. However, in this passage, that probably is a secondary connotation that was included in the primary meaning of this word. The primary meaning of this word here is to take away our sins, thereby removing (carrying away) the punishment for our sins. On the cross, Jesus took away our punishment by His bodily death.
The word translated
crosscould be translated
tree.It refers to an object made of wood. But in this context, it obviously refers to the wooden structure used for crucifixion, i.e. the cross (see Deut. 21:22).24b-c The purpose:The following statements might possibly be intended to refer to the result of Him bearing our sins. But they are almost certainly intended to refer to the purpose for Him bearing them. And then, because He is an effective Savior, He perfectly attained the results which He purposed to do. But the emphasis in this relationship is that the following statements are what Christ intended to accomplish in our lives by bearing our sins. And this is more than just freedom from eternal punishment. It impacts our daily lifestyle as well, which is Peter's emphasis here.24b dying to sinsthis phrase is a subordinate, supporting thought, modifying the next statement. But that does not mean that it is unimportant or secondary. It means that this phrase gets its meaning in connection with the next statement about living for righteousness. The connection is somewhat ambiguous. It could possibly communicate the means by which we can live for righteousness -
we live, by dying to sin.However, it is more likely that this is a cause/effect relationship -
because we died to sin, we can now live to righteousness.This is very similar to Paul's argument in Rom. 6:2-11.
Being dead with regard to sins means being unable to respond or react to any sinful desire or impulse.
to sinsshows the relationship that was terminated by our death in Christ. We have been set free, so that we can and should not respond as slaves to sin in the way that we used to. We died to sins, and so, our time of slavery is finished.
But this is in the already/not yet tension. We are done with sin because we have died. And yet, we still need to be vigilant to break with sins on an ongoing basis.24c So that we might live for righteousnessThe purpose for Christ bearing our sins on the cross is so that we would live righteously. True Christian conversion results in a change of lifestyle - not perfection, but a growing pattern of righteous behavior in our lives. We have died to sins, so that now, we are not just to live neutrally, or float in some moral grey area. Rather, we now can and should respond as willing servants of righteousness in the way that is pleasing to God, that demonstrates His greatness to a watching world, and that brings us eternal blessedness. This is similar to Paul's argument in Rom. 6:15-23.
righteousnessis all behavior that is upright, and most appropriate for each situation. It is the behavior that God requires - the behavior that most closely conforms to God's character and revealed will.
Our living for righteousness is the natural outgrowth of us having been given new birth into a living hope (1:3). And these two propositions echo Peter's theme statement for this entire section of the letter in 2:11-12, that we should abstain from sinful desires, but rather live such good lives that people see our good deeds and glorify God.24d-25 You have been healed/converted24d You have been healed by His woundsThis is a quote from Isa. 53:5.
In the language Peter used to write this,
by His woundscomes before
you are healedin order to emphasize the means by which we are healed more than the healing itself. And the word
of Him,which is translated as
His woundsis the first word in the sentence. This means that Christ is the main focus in this sentence, followed by the emphasis on His wounds, and then the fact that we are healed. Our healing is only because of Him, and what He has done on our behalf. Because He was wounded, you were healed. And we only receive healing, not by looking for healing, but by looking to Him.
There is some debate about the meaning of
healed.Does it refer to physical healing, or does it primarily refer metaphorically to spiritual, or to some kind of psychological wellness? In Isaiah, all the times he used the word
heal,it primarily refers to forgiveness and restoration from sin, and only secondarily (if at all) to physical healing. In this context in First Peter, it most naturally fits as figurative healing from sin and its punishment. The very next verse explains this healing by talking about conversion. So, this primarily is referring to the spiritual healing of having our sins forgiven and our relationship with our creator restored. However, in Matt. 8:17, Matthew uses Isa. 53 to refer to physical healing. So, physical healing may be a secondary, additional reference, which is dependent on the healing of conversion. In other words, by being healed from sin, sometimes we may also be healed from the physical consequences of sin. Physical healing is a blessing of the Kingdom, which is already and not yet. Therefore, our physical, psychological, and social healing is in the already/not yet tension. We will be fully healed then, and we may be at least partially healed now. Full healing - physical, spiritual, emotional, social, and psychological - is guaranteed. Only the timing is uncertain.25 The explanation of what it means to be healedPeter explained this healing by making a contrast between his readers' former lives and their current situation.
you were this..., but now you are that....25a For you were like sheep going astrayThis alluded to Isa. 53:6. In the Isaiah passage, the emphasis is that all have gone astray. And here Peter applied it personally to each of his readers. To go astray may have the connotation of innocently getting lost or wandering off, or of being deceived and led astray. But in the context of the New Testament, this idea of going astray always has the implication of willful, sinful rebellion against God and His standards.25b But now you have returned to the shepherd and overseer of your souls
Returnedmeans to have changed one's mind and course of action. It is an about-face turning. And this word is often used to speak about conversion. They had turned from sin by turning to Christ. And they had turned to Christ by turning from sin.
And Peter said, this returning was to the shepherd and guardian of your souls. The term
overseeris the same term used elsewhere in the New Testament to speak of leadership in the church, sometimes translated
bishop.But in this verse, it has no connotation of office, but rather it conveys the idea of function. It refers to one who safeguards and cares for something. So, in this verse, the words
guardianare basically used synonymously. They both refer to Christ's care, protection, and oversight of His people.So, Christ suffered redemptively, taking away our sins, so that we could live for righteousness. And we have been healed through conversion, turning back to our shepherd after we had gone astray. All of this is because of what Christ has done in His people's lives.[Implied Result: He was vindicated]In light of what Peter had written, especially because of His connection with the Isaiah suffering servant passage, there is an unstated implication that Peter clearly wanted his readers to draw from what he had written. And that is that Christ's experience did not end with suffering. The readers would have known that Jesus was resurrected, and ascended to the throne of power and authority over all the universe. So, the idea of Christ's vindication is clearly implied in this passage.
This is the only place in First Peter where the word
sufferingis not closely tied to the word
glory.But this glory is strongly implied and assumed by the larger story of what happened to Christ after His suffering. He was vindicated by the resurrection. And Peter had already mentioned Christ's
suffering and the glory that followed(1:11). And Peter had clearly connected Christ's suffering with the suffering servant passage in Isaiah, where the servant's vindication was a major theme. So, part of this passage is Peter's clear reference to the vindication and victory of Christ as part of the example that his readers were to follow.Application:Suffer InnocentlyWe should suffer rightly. That means that our suffering should be undeserved. We should live in a way that does not cause our suffering, but rather shows that our suffering is unjust and our accusers are wrong. And we should suffer in a worthy manner, following Christ's example of not fighting back, not slandering and insulting in return. Injustice will never solve injustice, and we should never resort to it. We should demonstrate that we are in the right by the way that we handle injustice and suffering. And we should do it in a way that does not excuse injustice or empower further injustice. And when we suffer, we should always do it in a way that is mindful of God.Suffer RedemptivelyWe can also suffer redemptively. Of course, we cannot do this in the same way as Christ. We cannot bear anyone else's sin. We cannot bring healing by our wounds. but we can suffer in a way that leads people to the One Who can bear their sin and effect their healing. In the larger context of 1 Peter, the readers are exhorted to good works in order to display God's glory and influence others. Following the example of Jesus bearing sins, by suffering, we can take some injustice on ourselves, in order to protect others from injustice. And we should consider the possibility that our sufferings could have redemptive purpose. Because we were called to this by Christ's saving us, and by Him leaving us an example. In and by our suffering well, we can impact the world. Our good works under suffering could be the means by which our abusers and critics become converts. Respond in a way that returns blessing for cursing, and shows the patience and grace that can only come from Christ. Suffering well, especially when it is known that we are suffering for Christ, is a witness to Christ. And it can be used for the redemption of others. In that sense, we can suffer redemptively.Trust God and Expect Vindication and RewardWe can also expect vindication whenever we suffer rightly. This is a major theme of the book of First Peter. And this is also included in the example of Jesus, Who rose from the dead to glory after His suffering. And we also can entrust ourselves to the very same Judge Who always judges justly. So, all of Peter's readers can expect vindication when they suffer innocently, and in a worthy manner, being mindful of God, and trusting in His divine justice. We can trust God to vindicate and repay. As Peter wrote earlier (1:13), we should set our hope fully on the grace to be given to us when Jesus Christ is revealed.
3:1-7 Wives and Husbands live worthilyDetailed Outline1-6 Instruction for wives1a In the same way, women, submit to your own husband1b-6 The Purpose: To win your unbelieving husbands1b-c Your lifestyle may win your husband1b If any of them disobey the Word1c They may be won without word, by the conduct of their wives2-6 The way this will happen2 Generally: They may see your pure and reverent life3-6 Specifically: What they should see:3-4 A life of inward beauty instead of outward adornment3 Neg: Not the beauty of braided hair or gold jewelry or fine clothes4 Pos: But with a godly life4a But an inner life of a meek and gentle spirit4b Reason: This is highly valuable in God's sight5-6 The Godly women of history have given example5a The holy women, who hoped in God adorned themselves in this way also5b-6 How they adorned themselves5b By submitting to their husbands6 For example - Sarah-cf. Gen 18:126a-b What she did6a Sarah obeyed Abraham6b Calling him master6c-e Therefore, what you should do6c You are her children6d-e Conditional: If you do these things6d Doing good6e Not fearing any terror/fearful thing7 Instructions for husbands-cf. Eph. 5:25-33, Col. 3:197a-b Live with your wife in a caring manner7a Live with them in an understanding way [with the care necessary] as [caring for] a weaker vessel7b Give them honor as fellow-heirs of the gracious gift of life7c Purpose: So that your prayers will not be hindered
3:8-12 Live worthily to receive blessingDetailed Outline8-9 Summary of commands-cf. "finally" of v. 8
Based on relationships discussed in 2:13-3:7 with concluding commands8-9c The Commands:8 Have these characteristics:Unity of mind and purpose-cf. Rom. 12:16, 15:5, 1 Cor. 1:10, 2 Cor. 13:11, Phil. 2:2Sympathy for one another-cf. Heb. 10:34, Rom. 12:15, 1 Cor. 12:26Brotherly love-cf. 1:22, Rom. 12:9-10, Jn. 13:34-35, 1 Thes. 4:9, Heb. 13:1Compassion, tenderheartedness-cf. Eph. 4:32, Phi. 1:8, 2:1, Col. 3:12Humility-cf. Prom. 29:23, 1 Pet. 5:5-6, Rom. 12:169a-c Do these things:9a-b Neg:9a Do not return evil for evil-cf. Rom. 12:17, 1 Thes. 5:15, 1 Pet. 2:23, Matt. 5:38-489b Or insult for insult9c Pos: But rather give blessing-cf. Lk. 6:28, Rom. 12:14, 1 Cor. 4:12-139d-e The Reason:9d Because you were called to this"this" = giving blessing even when insulted
-cf. 1:15, 2:219e Purpose: So that you may receive (inherit) blessingcf. Lk. 6:37-38, 1 Pet 1:410-12 The Reason: God pays back as each deservesQuoting Psa. 34:12-1610-11 Doing good pays off well10a If anyone wants these things to happen (conditional)If he wants to love lifeAnd if he wants to see good days10b-11 Let him do the following things:10b-c Have right speech10b Let him keep his tongue from evil10c And let him keep his lips from speaking deceit11a-b Have right actions11a Let him keep away from evil11b And let him do good11c-d Have right desires11c Let him desire peace11d And let him pursue after it12 Reason: God pays back in kind12a-b God pays back the good12a The eyes of the Lord are on the righteous12b His ears are open to their prayers and requests12c God pays back the badBut the face of the Lord is against those who do evil
3:13-16 Suffer worthily before the world to be vindicatedDetailed Outline13-14b You will do well as long as you do good13 Evil will not happen if you do good13a Rhetorical question: Who will do evil to you?Implied answer: Nobody
-cf. Prov. 16:713b Condition: If you are zealous to do good14a-b Even if it did, you will be blessed14a Even if [in the unlikely case] you might suffer for righteousness14b You will be blessed-cf. 2:19-2014c-16 The implications: How you should live since this is the case14c-16b Do these things:14c-d Do not be afraid-cf. Isa. 8:12-1414c Do not fear the things they fear14d Do not be troubled15-16b Let Christ be your Lord, both privately and publicly15a Set apart Christ as Lord in your heart15b-16b Be a witness for Christ15b Always be prepared to give an answer to everyone who asks for an explanation about the hope in you16a-b How you should answer16a With meekness and reverence-cf. Col. 4:616b having a good conscience16c Purpose:So that those who revile your good conduct in Christ may be put to shame in the very things they say about you-cf. 2:12, 15
3:17-22 Christ suffered worthily and was vindicatedDetailed Outline17 Suffering for righteousness is better than evildoing17a-b Suffering for righteousness is better17a It is better to suffer while/for doing good17b Condition: If the will of God chooses [that you suffer]17c [It is Better] than to suffer while/for doing evil18-22 Reason: Christ has shown by example that glory follows suffering-cf. 1:11
"Above all, the death of Jesus and his triumphant resurrection give a theological basis to the suffering of Christians and assure them of ultimate victory over the forces of evil manifested in persecution." Marshal p. 11818a-c What Christ has done18a-b Christ died for your salvation18a Christ suffered18a-b Specifics about His suffering18a Christ suffered once and for all for sinsHe suffered once and for all-cf. Rom. 6:10, Heb. 7:27, 9:12, 26, 28, 10:10[He suffered] for sins (as a sin offering)-cf. 2:24, Gal. 1:4, 1 Cor. 15:3, Heb. 1:1218b The Righteous One suffered for the unrighteous-cf. 1:1918c The Purpose: to bring you to God-cf. Rom. 5:1-2, Eph. 2:18, 3:12, Heb. 10:19-2218d-22 Further explanation of what this means18d-20c What Christ accomplished18d He died in the flesh18e He was made alive in/by the Spirit19-20c He ascended in triumph-cf. Col. 2:1519 He proclaimed His victory to His enemies"Much more likely is the view that Christ made proclamation to the evil powers, announcing his victory on the cross and confirming their defeat. They are now subject to him (3:22) and those who are persecuted need not be afraid of the evil spiritual powers who inspire their persecutors." Marshall p. 12819a in/by which [Spirit] He went to the spirits19b He proclaimed to the spirits under guard-cf. Rev. 18:2, Matt. 12:29
"The point is simply that Christ went and announced his sovereignty to these spirits wherever they might be, in every place where they thought they were secure against their ancient divine Enemy. The location of their strongholds, and hence the geography of Christ's mission to them, is not Peter's main concern." WBC p. 21020a-c Specifically which enemies20a The spirits that disobeyed20b-c When they disobeyed20b In the days of NoahThis passage is about vindication!
It is the vindication of the Lord aimed at the point in history [Noah and the Flood] when it most plausibly seemed that God had failed (it may have seemed that way, but of course it was not true). God's enemies could cast this episode as an example of when they won out over God's plans and purposes. They may even have congratulated themselves on their victory for thousands of years and harbored the delusion that they could actually defeat God.
The cross of Christ would have added to the delusion of thwarting God's rule.
But Jesus quickly dispelled this illusion by raising from the dead and proclaiming His victory over all who stood against Him.
His apparent defeat was only part of His plan. And the only reason they could suppose that their animosity toward God had any success was God's grace and patience in allowing a delay of their inevitable total defeat.
The evil spirits were rejoicing in Noah's day.
The evil spirits were rejoicing at the cross.
The evil spirits were no longer rejoicing, because Christ proclaimed His vindication and victory.20c When the ark was being builtThis passage is about vindication!
It also points to the vindication of all who are on Christ's side
During the time when Noah was building the ark, he probably looked like a fool, and he was subject to the mocking from all his neighbors.
But when the flood came, Noah was vindicated
In the same way, Peter's readers may have appeared foolish, subject to the mocking of their neighbors.
Just as Noah was vindicated in the flood, and Jesus was vindicated in the resurrection.
Peter's readers could be assured that they would be vindicated in the eschatological future (if not earlier)20d-22 The implications for Peter's readers20d-21 Christ's victory assures your victory20d-e An illustration from Noah's time20d Few people - eight in all20e Few were saved out of that situation through water, in the ark21 How that applies to you21a It corresponds to baptism, which now saves you21b-c Further explanations21b It is not the purifying from defilement of the flesh21c It is the promise of a good conscience to God, through the resurrection of Jesus Christ"The word Peter uses for pledge is eperotema. In every business contract there was a definite question and answer which made the contract binding. The question was:'Do you accept the terms of this contract, and bind yourself to observe them?' And the answer, before witnesses was: 'Yes.' Without that question and answer the contract was not valid. The technical word for that question and answer clause is eperotema in Greek....Peter is, in effect, saying that in baptism God said to the man coming direct from heathenism: 'Do you accept the terms of my service? Do you undertake its responsibilities and its demands?' And in the act of being baptized the man answered: 'Yes'." Barclay p. 24522 The Reason: Christ has absolute authority in the whole of creation22a He is at the right hand of God-cf. Psa. 110:1, Rom. 8:3422b He has gone into heaven-cf. 1 Tim. 3:1622c Angels and authorities and powers are subject to Him-cf. Psa. 8:7, Heb. 2:5-9, Eph. 1:19-23
All of those spirits to which Jesus preached His vindication are specifically described as being under His authority
Everything and everyone who could possibly cause the persecution and suffering of Peter's readers is under His authority
And therefore, the suffering is not ultimate or eternal, Jesus' authority and vindication is ultimate and eternal
4:1-6 Therefore live like Christ, not your old lifeDetailed Outline1-3 Live for the will of God.1-2 Follow in Christ's attitude1a Because Christ suffered in the flesh1b-2 Follow in His footsteps1b Have the same attitude1c-2 Reason: It leads to a clean break with the old way of life1c the one who suffers in the flesh has stopped from sin2 Purpose: To live for God2a Neg: in order to no longer live for human desires2b Pos: But rather live the rest of your time in the flesh for the will of God3 Reason: Enough is enough3a The time past is sufficient to have walked in the will of the Gentiles3b By participating in debauchery, lust, drunkenness, orgies, carousing, and detestable idolatry4-6 The Response you can expect4 They will respond harshly to your rejection of their values4a-b They will be surprised at your change4a They will be unpleasantly surprised4b because you no longer plunge into the same flood of dissipation4c They will slander you and blaspheme as a result5-6 The final result - They will be judged, you will be vindicated5 They will have to give an answer to the One Who is ready to judge the living and the dead6 Parenthetical explanation of the term "living and the dead"6a The Gospel was preached even to those who are now deadPossibly still referring back to the people in the days of Noah
More probably referring to people in Peter's recent past who had been martyred for their faith6b-c The purpose for the preaching6b Even though they may be judged in the flesh according to mankind's standardProbably referring to Christian martyrs who had been judged worthy of being put to death for their Christian faith
This is a judgment based on faulty, demoniacally inspired standards grounded in autonomous human centered secular/pagan values6c They may live in the spirit according to God's true and just judgmentThey will be vindicated by God, Who upholds righteous judgment by true standards
Therefore, even if they die (like Christ) they will live (like Christ)
4:7-11 Live appropriately in light of the end
Detailed Outline7a The end of all things has drawn near7b-11 The implications and necessities in light of this fact7b-11b In light of the preceding fact, these four things must be done7b-d First Command:7b-c Be in the proper state of mind7b Be clear-minded7c Be self-controlled/sober7d Purpse: So that you can pray [properly]8 Second Command:8a Have fervent love for one anothercf. 1:22 - "Love one another fervently"8b Reason: Love covers a multitude of sinscf. Prov. 10:12
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Love does not broadcast and fuel sins, but rather seeks to diminish (not hide) sins9 Third Command:9a Be hospitable9b Without grumbling10-11b Fourth Command:10 Given in general terms:10a Each person has been given a gift10b-c Therefore, use it10b Use the gift you have received to serve others10c Use it like a good steward of God's multifaceted grace would-cf. 1:6 "manifold trials" are met by God's "manifold grace"11a-b Specific ways to carry out the command11a-b Speaking:11a If someone speaks [whoever speaks]11b speak as if speaking the words of God11c-d Serving:11c If someone serves [whoever serves]11d serve with the strength which God provides11e-f The purpose for doing these things:11e So that God will be glorified through Jesus Christ11f to Him be glory and power forever and ever, amen
4:12-5:11 Live prepared for actual suffering
4:12-19 Worthily suffer with Christ in order to share in His gloryDetailed Outline12-18 You can rejoice in trials because glory follows righteous suffering12-14 Rejoice in trials and persecution12-13 Don't be surprised in suffering but rejoice12 Don't be surprised12a Beloved, don't be surprised when intense trials and temptations come upon you12b As if this was something strange happening to you13 But rather rejoice13a-b Rejoice as you share the sufferings of Christ13a Insomuch as you are sharing in the sufferings of Christ13b To that extent, rejoice13c-d The Purpose: You will continue to rejoice forever13c So that you will rejoice also at the revelation of Christ's glory13d That is, you will exceedingly rejoice14 The Reason: God's Spirit and blessing are on such people14a If you are abused on account of the name of Christ14b-c You are blessed because God repays suffering with glory14b You are blessed14c Because the Spirit of Glory and of God rests on you15-18 You should suffer in the right way and for the right reasons15-16 Don't suffer as an evildoer, but as a Christian15 Don't suffer as an evildoer15a Don't let any of you suffer [for the following reason]15b Because you are a murderer, thief, evildoer, or meddler in others' affairs16 Suffering in the right way if you suffer for being a Christian16a-b If you suffer for being a Christian16a If anyone suffers16b As a Christian [because you are a Christian]16c-d Suffer in the right way16c Do not be ashamed16d But rather glorify God in this Name17-18 The Reason: Judgment is starting17a It is time for judgment to start with the people of God17b-18 The implications - especially for those outside God's people17b-c If Christians first, others finally17b If judgment starts with us17c What will be the end of those who disobey the Gospel of God?Implication: Final judgment!18 If the righteous barely make it, the unrighteous don't at all18a If the righteous are saved with difficulty18b How are the ungodly and sinners going to fare at the end?Implication: Not very well!19 Final Implication: Therefore, those who suffer according to God's will should entrust themselves to their faithful creator by doing good works
5:1-4 Elders serve worthily as church leadersDetailed Outline1-3 The leaders among you should exercise leadership in the proper way1 Peter urges the leaders to proper conductI urge the eldersPeter's description of himselfThe fellow elder
And a witness to the sufferings of Christ
And a partaker in the glory which is about to be revealedTo whom Peter is speaking:To the elders [leadership] among you2-3 What conduct he urges them to:2a Pastor (shepherd, oversee) the people of God among you2b-3 Specifically how to do that:2b Overseeing them [in the following manner:]2c-3 The way you should oversee themIn 3 pairs of contrasting motivations2c-d First pair:2c Not because you have to2d But because you want to2e-f Second pair:2e Not doing it for monetary gain2f But willingly3a-b Third pair:3a Not lording it over people3b But setting an example for the people4 The motivation - If you do so:4a When the Chief-shepherd [Christ] is revealed4b You will receive the unfading crown of glory
5:5-7 Young men live humblyDetailed Outline5a Those who are younger, be subject to the eldersIn the same way, younger ones
[Command] Be subject to the elders5b-7 Everyone be humble5b-d Everyone clothe yourself with humility5b Command: Clothe yourself with humility toward one another5c-d Reason: God responds to the humble and proud appropriately5c God opposes the proud/arrogant5d God gives grace to the humble6-7 Therefore, humble yourself before God6 Generally - Humble yourself before God6a Command: Humble yourself under the powerful hand of God6b Purpose: So that He may lift you up in time7 Specifically - a way to do this is by casting your cares on Him7a Cast your anxieties/worries onto Him-cf. Psa. 55:23
In the Psalm context quoted, the promise is that He will support/sustain you7b Reason: It is a concern/interest to Him about you
5:8-11 Be on your guard as you wait for the rewardDetailed Outline8 Be watchful and alert against the devil8a-b Commands: Be on your guard8a Be sober-minded-cf. 4:78b And be alert/watchful8c-e Reason: Your adversary is trying to destroy you8c-d Fact: Your adversary is prowling around8c Your adversary the devil is prowling around8d Like a lion8e Interpretation: [He is] looking for someone to devour9-10 Implication: Resist him9a Command: Resist him9c-10 The way to resist him9b [By] being firm/steadfast in faith9c-10 By knowing the truth of the situation9c Disclosure formula: [By] knowing9d-10 Content of what you know:9d Neg: You are not alone/abnormal in this experienceThe same kinds of sufferings are being carried out/fulfilled against your brotherhood which is in the world10 Pos: God will counter your sufferings with His glory10a-c God will restore/make fit/prepare10a-b the fact: God will restore10a God's character God of all grace Who has called us into His eternal glory in Christ10b This very same God will restore [you]10c The concession: Even though we suffer for a little while10d God will strengthen [you]/establish [you]/cause [you] to be firm10e God will make [you] strong/capable10f God will establish/secure [you]11 Doxology: To Him be power/dominion forever. Amen
5:12-14 Conclusion and GreetingsDetailed Outline12 Purpose for writing12a-d Peter wrote to encourage them and testify to God's grace12a-b Peter wrote through Silvanus12a Through Silvanus/Silas, whom I consider to be a faithful brother12b I wrote to you with few words/briefly12c-d The purpose for writingUrging/exhorting/encouraging
Testifying that 'this is the true grace of God'12e Inference: Stand firm in this grace13-14a Greetings13 From Peter's peopleShe who is in Babylon greets youAlmost certainly the church in RomeWhich is chosen along with [you]
My [spiritual] son, Mark also greets you14a To one anotherGreet one another
With a kiss of love14b Peace wishPeace to all of you
Who are in Christ